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This is a list of articles about particular cultures' naming conventions. The order given name, family name is commonly known as the Western order and is usually used in most European countries and in countries that have cultures predominantly influenced by Western Europe e. Within alphabetic lists and catalogs, however, the family name is generally put first, with the given name s following, separated from it by a comma e.

Smith, John , representing the "lexical name order". This convention is followed by most Western libraries, as well as on many administrative forms. The order family name, given name is commonly known as the Eastern order and is primarily used in East Asia for example in China , Japan and Korea , as well as in Southeast Asia Cambodia and Vietnam , and Southern and North-Eastern parts of India, and also in Hungary. When East Asian names are transliterated into the Latin alphabet , some people prefer to convert them to the Western order, while others leave them in the Eastern order but write the family name in capital letters.

To avoid confusion, there is a convention in some language communities, e. French, to write the family name in all capitals when engaging in formal correspondence or writing for an international audience.

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In Hungarian, the Eastern order of Japanese names is officially kept and Hungarian transliteration is used e. Mijazaki Hajao , but Western name order is also sometimes used with English transliteration e. Hayao Miyazaki. Chinese people, except for those traveling or living outside of China and areas influenced by China, rarely reverse their Chinese language names to the western naming order given name, then family name , but some may have non-Chinese given names which may use a different order. In regard to Japanese names, most foreign publications reverse the names of modern individuals, and most Japanese reverse their own names when creating materials for foreign consumption.

Names of Japanese or Chinese sportspeople generally follow the above conventions. Names of Korean sportspeople may be rendered in East Asian or Western order in Western countries, apparently depending on the sport. For example, names of Korean footballers and athletes are usually left in East Asian order e. Confusion can be avoided by noticing that in all the above cases, the words linked by a hyphen are the given name. Mordvins use two names - a Mordvin name and a Russian name.

The Mordvin name is written in the Eastern name order.


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Mongolians use the Eastern naming order patronymic followed by given name , which is also used there when rendering the names of other East Asians and Hungarians. Russian and other Western names, however, are still written in Western order. Apart from the Linnaean taxonomy , some humans give individual non-human animals and plants names, usually of endearment. Pet names often reflect the owner's view of the animal, and their expectations they have for their companion. The name given to a pet may refer to its appearance [12] or personality, [13] or be chosen for endearment , [14] or in honor of a favorite celebrity.

Many pet owners give human names to their pets. This has been shown to reflect the owner having a human-like relationship with the pet. In some cultures, pets or sporting animals are sometimes given names similar to human names. Other cultures, such as the Chinese , give animals nonhuman names because it would be seen as offensive and disrespectful to the person of the same name.

A study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences claims that humans are not the only animals that use personal names. Researchers from the University of North Carolina Wilmington studying bottlenose dolphins in Sarasota Bay, Florida, found that the dolphins had names for each other. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the full names of individual human beings.

For the name distinguishing one person from others with the same surname, see given name. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. This section's factual accuracy is disputed. Relevant discussion may be found on Talk:Personal name. Tagged with: Atheist Advertising General. Previous Post.

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Next Post. He'll need solitary, or, at least, protective custody to protect Browse Our Archives. Switzerland challenged a prohibition on foreign men married to Swiss women keeping their surname if this option was provided in their national law, an option available to women. Turkey challenged prohibitions on women using their surname as the family name, an option only available to men.

Only a fraction of surnames in English-speaking countries around the world come from Britain. With a few exceptions, Europe's languages are cognate , so most European surnames have a common etymological origin. Some surnames are monogenetic derived from one family at a specific place and time ; others are polygenetic coined independently at different places and times. Basil Cottle classifies European surnames under four broad categories, depending on their origin: given name patronymics , occupational name, local name toponymics , and nickname.

Other name etymologists use a fuller classification, but these four types underlie them. These are the oldest and most common type of surname. Multiple surnames may be derived from a single given name: e. The Icelandic system, formerly used in much of Scandinavia, does not use family names.

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A person's last name indicates the first name of their father patronymic or in some cases mother matronymic. Patronymic name conventions are similar in some other nations, including Malaysia see Malaysian name and other Muslim countries, among most people of the Indian states of Tamil Nadu and Kerala unlike another Indian state Andhra Pradesh , where ancestral origin village names have become surnames for the people , in Mongolia and in the Scottish Gaelic personal naming system.

In Russia and Bulgaria , both patronymic and family name are obligatory parts of one's full name: e. A similar system is used in Greece. In Ethiopia and Eritrea , a child adopts the given name of one of their parents, usually the father, as a pseudo-surname. For example, Abraham Mesfin's father's first name would have been Mesfin, while Abraham Mesfin's child might be called "Netsanet Abraham". Very rarely do children adopt their mother's given name, who in any case would retain their "pseudo-surname".

As part of Hebrew patronymic names , Ben is followed by the father's name, e. Bar- , "son of" in Aramaic , is used likewise, e. Meir Bar-Ilan. There is a wide range of family name affixes with a patronymic function. Some are prefixes e. Occupational names include such simple examples as Smith for a smith , Miller for a miller , Farmer for tax farmers or sometimes farmers , Thatcher for a thatcher , Shepherd for a shepherd , Potter for a potter , and so on, as well as non-English ones, such as the German Eisenhauer iron hewer , later Anglicized in America as Eisenhower or Schneider tailor — or, as in English, Schmidt smith.

There are also more complicated names based on occupational titles. In England it was common for servants to take a modified version of their employer's occupation or first name as their last name, [ according to whom? For instance, the surname Vickers is thought to have arisen as an occupational name adopted by the servant of a vicar, [34] while Roberts could have been adopted by either the son or the servant of a man named Robert.

A subset of occupational names in English are names thought to be derived from the medieval mystery plays. The participants would often play the same roles for life, passing the part down to their oldest sons.

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Names derived from this may include King , Lord and Virgin. The original meaning of names based on medieval occupations may no longer be obvious in modern English so the surnames Cooper , Chandler , and Cutler come from the occupations of making barrels, candles, and cutlery, respectively.

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Location toponymic, habitation names derive from the inhabited location associated with the person given that name.