Elaine K. Gazda Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, , 49—70, on the implications of Statius's poem for understanding the architecture and painted views of maritime villas and how they reflect a new Roman worldview. The most poignant testimony of relations between villa owners is that of Pliny the Younger who records his experience of the eruption of A. In two letters to Tacitus, he gives an account of Pliny the Elder's death from ash and fumes of the eruption when he attempted in vain to rescue his friends from their villa at Stabiae.
The Elder Pliny had commandeered a naval vessel to sail from Misenum to Stabiae.
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Although he reached his destination, the violent surging of the sea made it impossible to sail back to Misenum to safety. Pliny, Ep. For discussion of Caesar's villa at Baiae, see G. Ciaccia and P. See, in this volume, John R. Many of the standard components of villa architecture are named by ancient authors from Cato to Pliny the Younger. In luxury villas such as those owned by Pliny the Younger, some of the architectural forms are named in Greek after Hellenistic counterparts.
Michael L. Thomas and John R. At the Lido Azzurro of the modern city, part of the ancient coastline survives along with traces of Roman baths that have been built over by modern ones. These ancient baths may have been public rather than private. Evidence of such seaside accoutrements comes not only from numerous other archaeological sites along the shores of the Bay, but also along the entire western seacoast of Italy. Literary sources record the more spectacular examples of Roman pisciculture, and bathing was de rigueur.
Stein and J. Engulfed by the eruption and their subsequent long burial, a number of these villas are, like Villa A, among the best preserved today as a result of their protection from centuries of exposure to the elements. Although some of the villas located inland on the southern, eastern, and northern slopes of Vesuvius had splendid views, imposing architecture, and fine interior decor, the impressive villas at Somma Vesuviana and Lauro di Nola among them, in this essay I focus on villas close to or on the coast. The setting mattered to Romans: Villas were not in a city. Thus, in this chapter I do not consider the town houses that were enlarged to extend over the top of city walls so that they became villalike, competing in lavishness and size with villas that were out of town.
Nor do I discuss the reburied Villa of T. Siminius Stefanus outside the Vesuvian Gate on the north side of Pompeii, which is known primarily for the superb mosaic depicting Plato's Academy that was found there Mattusch, Pompeii and the Roman Villa , , cat. Also excluded from my discussion are two villas located just outside the Herculaneum Gate: the Villa of the Mosaic Columns and the reburied so-called Villa of Cicero, which yielded mosaics of theatrical scenes that name Dioscourides as the artist of the compositions.
Wilhelmina F. Now in the Museo Archeologico Nazionale in Naples, inv. For the megalography in room 5, see Elaine K. Gazda, ed. For Terzigno, see Eric M. On Herculaneum and Boscoreale, see below. In the city of Pompeii, megalographic images such as those of elephants and seated muses in the Casa del Sacello Iliaco I, 6, 2—4, room f occur sporadically. The villa was excavated between and and at the time made a strong impression on visitors, not least because of its excellent state of preservation, which has since deteriorated.
Also see Eristov, Fig. Francis W. Kelsey, rev. New York: Macmillan, , — On the gardens, see Jashemski, Gardens , —, nos. Just outside this gate two human skeletons were found—one, perhaps the owner fleeing the eruption, was carrying a large key and ninety-eight gold and silver coins. Elsewhere in the villa thirty-four other skeletons and impressions of bodies were found. See Mau-Kelsey, Pompeii , — For the fishpond, see Higginbotham, Piscinae , — See also Jashemski, Gardens of Pompeii , , fig.
Victoria C. Gardner Coates and Jon L. Seydl Los Angeles: The J. Paul Getty Museum, , — The museum at Boscoreale presents reconstructions of the ancient environment. See Grete Stefani, ed.
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Some geophysical survey was done in — to try to learn more about the plan of the villa. Rosaria Ciardiello Naples: L'Orientale, , — Bettina Bergmann et al.
On paintings from the Villa of the Treasure, see Winkes, 23, and figs. Mau-Kelsey, Pompeii , Peter H. Heidelberg: Kerle, Reprinted with additions, as Peter H. Paul Getty Museum, , The Villa Sora has been explored intermittently since the late seventeenth century. See Lucia A. A plan of shows parts of the villa that are no longer visible.kinun-houju.com/wp-content/bumeharoq/4127.php
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I am grateful to Domenico Esposito for the bibliographic references on the Villa Sora cited here. These works of art were taken to Palermo, along with other antiquities discovered at numerous sites, under the Bourbons, when Ferdinand IV and his wife escaped from the approaching forces of Napoleon.
For the dating of the villa, see pages 55— Maria Rosaria Borriello, Maria Paola Guidobaldi, and Pier Giovanni Guzzo Milan: Electa, , 70—79, for a brief history of the villa's exploration and publication along with excellent photographs of the sculptures from the villa. Eric M.
Archeologie a Confronto , ed. See also Eric M. Paul Getty Museum, , ch. John J.
Dobbins and Pedar W. See Winkes, Roman Paintings and Mosaics , 10— On some points concerning the finds of sculpture Stefani's account differs slightly from that of Winkes. Winkes, Roman Paintings and Mosaics , offers reconstructions of the paintings in the peristyle based in part on archival photographs. See his figs. D'Arms , ed. Anna Gallina Zevi and John H. Martin Frederiksen, ed. Jashemski, Gardens , , no. Many other rustic villas were identified in a survey of the region of Stabiae.
Jashemski , ed. Robert I. Summaries of the excavation histories, architecture, finds, and current status of the various villas appear in Guzzo et al.